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Art History
Early 20th Century

FAUVISM (1905- 1909)

Its a pictorial movement based in a colorist liberty and the expresionist distort of the figures; the artists liked to use pure colors and didnt miked colors.

This movement began in Paris in early 20 Centuy; the fauvism word is from an art critic who called them "fauves", wich is french for "wild beasts".

The fauvists wanted to change the art, their goal was to be different; some important artists were Henri Matisse, Maurice de Vlamnick and Andre Derain.

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EXPRESSIONISM (1906-1919)

Its an artistic and literary tendence began in Germany, and it is represented by the expression intensity. This tendence traspassed the reality accord with the sensibility for create an emotional impact on the observer.

There were two principal expressionists groups:

The first one was called "DIE BRCKER" (the Bridge) and was formed in Dresden (1905), some of important artists were Ernst Lugwig Kirchner and Emil Nolde, they distorted forms and clashing colors.

The second group was "DER BLAUE REITER" (The Blue Rider) and was formed in Munich (1911), one important artist was Wassily Kandinsky, this group produced a non-represantional art that was made up of lines, shapes and colors.

CUBISM (1909- 1926)

Its an artistic tendence that began in Paris, it sustituyed the representation kinds about renaissance by new techniques.

Cubism is divided in two periods:

- 1st Period: ANALYTIC CUBISM:

In this period the form of objects was formed by geometric forms and they

were used colors to dark greens and browns, their principally subjects were

still life such as musical instruments.

- 2nd Period: SYNTHETIC CUBISM:

In this period the process is contrarius analytic cubism, in the synthetic c.

the lines and shapes of different color were arranged to form objects.

In this period Picasso and Braque invente collages (from the French word

"coller" = "to glue"). Some important artists were Picasso, Braque and Juan

Gris, they glued on pieces of paper and newspaper to their artwork.

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FUTURISM (1909- 1918)

Its an artistic and ideologic movement began in Italy, impulsed by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, it movement pretended to change the art, ideas, customs, literature and the language; the futurists wanted to start a new kind of art.

Some of important artists were Fernand Lger and Piet Mondrian.

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DADAISM (1916- 1922)

Its a literary-artistic movement and surrealism precursor began in Zurich, Switzerland.

There are different explanations about this name, one book says that "dada" is a French word means the first syllabes that babies say "da-da", this explanation shows that the artists wanted to "start life over". Another source says that this word "dada" is found in a German dictionary; but really the word had no meaning.

The Dadaism was an ANTI-ART movement, because only attacked society trough scandal, they decided to give the world ugliness. Some important artists were Jean Arp and Marcel Duchamp.

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SURREALISM (1924- 1940)

Its an artistic and literary movement began after first world war, it was opposit at order and logic, moral and social convention. "Surrealism" means "going beyond realism". The subjects of this art was abstract ideas (as the things that you can see in a dream). They wanted to join the world could only understand looking INTO the objects. Some important artists are Joan Mir, Max Ernest, Salvador Dal and Ren Magritte.

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ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM (1940- 1970)

It was the first movement that take place in United States. This period produced a simple, spontaneus and psichologycal art where the artists wanted people to interpret the artwork in different ways, and the artwork had an unfinished look, because the artists wanted people to focus on the meaning of artwork, some of the artists painted on canvas and used their feet to spread the paint.

Some important artists are Jackson Pollock, Arshile Gorkyand Willem de Kooning.

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